§ 135. Exercises - А. З. Цисык; пер на англ яз. А. З. Цисык. Минск : бгму, 2010. 212 с

§ 135. Exercises

  1. ^ Give the dictionary form of the Latin equivalents corresponding to
    the following Greek roots:

brachy-, dolich-, erythr-, glyc-, leuc-, melan-, micr-, olig-, poly-, thyre-

  1. Write the dictionary form of the Latin equivalents and then give:
    1) Greek equivalents corresponding to every Latin equivalent 2) English meaning of every pair of equivalents:

calor; cellŭla; dens; labium; lingua; lien; magnus; maxilla; medulla ossium; pes; pulsus; sensus

  1. ^ Complete (orally) the dictionary form of each noun. Determine
    the meaning of each initial and final morphological element; write down the full definition of each term as well as its English equivalent:

amnesia; anaesthesiolŏgus; apodia; asthenia; brachycephălus; brachydactylia; dolichocephalia; dysthyreōsis; erythropenia; glossoplegia; glycaemia; hyperaemia; hyperthermia; hypotonia; leucocytōsis; melanoderma; microgenia; micromyelia; odontogenĕsis; oligocytaemia; oligophrenia; polymastia; prognathia; sphygmogramma; splenomegalia; thermotherapia; thrombocytopoёsis; thyreotoxicōsis

  1. ^ Make up the Latin dictionary form of one-word terms with the following meaning:

abnormal narrowness of the mouth; abnormal slowness and weakness
of the process of digestion; abnormal sluggishness of physical movements;
a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes; a condition
of enlargement of the liver; an abnormally long colon of normal diameter;
an increase in the total number of leucocytes; a pathological condition involving many joints; a person with an unusually small size of head; a red blood cell that is larger than normal; a state in which most of the teeth are lacking; a state in which there are too few erythrocytes; dilatation of the stomach; excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body; the origin and development of bone marrow;
the origin and development of morbid condition; extremely rapid breathing

  1. ^ Give the full definition and the Latin dictionary form of the terms:

aglossia; anaemia; brachyoesophagus; cytology; dolichocolon; dystonia; erythema; gnathalgia; haematomyelia; hepatomegalia; hyperesthesia; hyperglycaemia; hypertension; hypomnesia; hypophrenia; hypoplasia; hypothermia; macrocyte; megaloduodenum; megalomania; melanocarcinoma; micromastia; microsphygmy; monocytopoesis; myelocytaemia; oligodactylia; podagra; podalgia; polyavitaminosis; splenohepatomegaly

§ 136. Vocabulary to lesson 21

Latin-English vocabulary

amnesia, ae f — loss of memory of varying degree, amnesia

anaesthesiolŏgus, i m — a specialist in the administration of anaesthetics, anaesthesiologist

apodia, ae f — congenital absence of feet, apodia

asthenia, ae f — loss of vital forces, asthenia

brachycephălus, i m — an individual with disproportionately short head, brachycephalic

brachydactylia, ae f — a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes, brachydactylia

dolichocephalia, ae f — the state of having a relatively long skull, dolichocephalia

dysthyreōsis, ae f — imperfect functioning of the thyroid gland, dysthyreosis

erythropenia, ae f — a state in which there are too few erythrocytes, erythropenia

glossoplegia, ae f — paralysis of the tongue, glossoplegia

glycaemia, ae f — a condition in which the circulating blood contains a quantity of sugar above normal amounts, glycaemia

hyperaemia, ae f — an excess of blood in any part of the body, hyperaemia

hyperthermia, ae f — very high body temperature, hyperthermia

hypotonia, ae f — lessened tension in any body structure, hypotonia

leucocytōsis, is f — an increase in the total number of leucocytes in the blood, leucocytosis

melanoderma, ătis n — a condition in which there is an unusually large accumulation of melanin in the skin, melanoderma

microgenia, ae f — a condition in which the chin is of unusually small size, microgenia

micromyelia, ae f — general reduction in size of the spinal cord, micromyelia

odontogenĕsis, is f — the origin and formative development of teeth, odontogenesis

oligocytaemia, ae f — a condition in the blood in which there is cell deficiency, oligocytaemia

oligophrenia, ae f — congenital lack of the mentality, oligophrenia

polymastia, ae f — a state in which in human beings there are more than two distinct mammary glands, polymastia

prognathia, ae f — a condition in which there is abnormal projection of one or both jaws, prognatism

sphygmoramma, ătis n — a record of the arterial pulse waves, sphygmogram

splenomegalia, ae f — enlargement of the spleen, splenomegalia

thermotherapia, ae f — the use of heat in the treatment of disease, thermotherapia

thrombocytopoёsis, is f — the formation of blood platelets, thrombocytopoiesis

thyreotoxicōsis, is f — any toxic condition attributable to hyperactivity of
the thyroid gland, thyrotoxicosis

^ English-Latin vocabulary

abnormal slowness and weakness of the process of digestion, hypopepsia — hypopepsia, ae f

abnormally rapid breathing, tachypnea — tachypnoё, ёs f

a condition of enlargement of the liver, hepatomegalia — hepatomegalia, ae f

a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes, brachydactylia — brachydactylia, ae f

aglossia, a congenital condition of being devoid of a tongue — aglossia, ae f

an abnormally long colon of normal diameter, dolichocolon — dolichocōlon, i n

anaemia, a condition of the blood in which there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the red cells resulting in a reduction in the total amount of blood — anaemia, ae f

an increase in the total number of leucocytes, leucocytosis — leucocytōsis, is f

a pathological condition involving many joints, polyarthropathy — polyarthropathia, ae f

a person with an unusually small size of head, microcephalus — microcephălus, i m

a red blood cell that is larger than normal, macrocyte — macrocўtus, i m

a state in which most of the teeth are lacking, oligodentia — oligodentia, ae f

a state in which there are too few erythrocytes, erythropenia — erythropenia, ae f

brachyoesophagus, a congenitally short oesophagus — brachyoesophăgus, i m

dilatation of the stomach, gastrectasia — gastrectasia, ae f

dolichocolon, an abnormally long colon of normal diameter — dolichocōlon, i n

cytology, the science of the form and functions of cells — cytologia, ae f

dystonia, a state of disordered tonicity — dystonia, ae f

erythema, redness of the skin due to hyperaemia — erythēma, ătis n

excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body, hyperaesthesia — hyperaesthesia, ae f

extremely rapid breathing, tachypnea — tachypnoё, ёs f

gnathalgia, pain in one or both jaws — gnathalgia, ae f

haematomyelia, bleeding within the substance of the spinal cord — haematomyelia, ae f

hepatomegalia, a condition of enlargement of the liver — hepatomegalia, ae f

hyperaesthesia, excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body — hyperaesthesia, ae f

hyperglycaemia, an excessive amount of sugar in the blood — hyperglycaemia, ae f

hypertension, high arterial blood pressure — hypertensio, ōnis f

hypomnesia, a weak or defective state of the memory — hypomnesia, ae f

hypophrenia, feebleness of mind — hypophrenia, ae f

hypoplasia, underdevelopment of a tissue or part — hypoplasia, ae f

hypothermia, deficiency of body heat — hypothermia, ae f

macrocyte, a red blood cell that is larger than normal — macrocўtus, i m

megaloduodenum, duodenum of abnormally large size — megaloduodēnum, i n

megalomania, a mental condition in which a person has grandiose delusions about himself and his own intellect, power, importance and so on — megalomania, ae f

melanocarcinoma, a darkly pigmented malignant epithelial tumor — melanocarcinōma, ătis n

micromastia, abnormal smallness of the mammary glands — micromastia, ae f

microsphygmy, diminished strength of pulse — microsphygmia, ae f

monocytopoiesis, the production of monocytes in the bone marrow — monocytopoёsis, is f

myelocytaemia, the presence of myelocytes in the blood — myelocytaemia, ae f

oligodactylia, a congenital deficiency of fingers or toes — oligodactylia, ae f

podagra, gout, a disease of the purine metabolism characterized by attacks of arthritis with an assotiated raised serum uric acid — podăgra, ae f

podalgia, sensation of pain in the foot — podalgia, ae f

polyavitaminosis, a morbid condition caused by deficiency of several
vitamins — polyavitaminōsis, is f

splenohepatomegaly, enlargement of the spleen — splenohepatomegalia ae f

the origin and development of the bone marrow, myelogenesis — myelogenĕsis, is f

the origin and development of a morbid condition, pathogenesis — pathogenĕsis, is f

Lesson 22


§ 137. Names of inflammatory conditions

The state of inflammation in any organ or tissue, as a rule, is usually expressed by means of the final suffixed element -ītis which is transformed into -itĭdis in the Genitive form. The suffix -ītis is added to the initial root of
the noun which defines the place of a morbid state. All the terms with the suffix -ītis are nouns of the 3rd declension:

arthr- (joint) + ītis → arthrītis, itĭdis f — inflammation of a joint, arthritis

hepat- (liver) + ītis → hepatītis, itĭdis f — inflammation of the liver, hepatitis

The suffix -ītis may be added both to the Greek and Latin roots:

nephr- (Greek nephros kidney) + ītis → nephrītis, itĭdis f —
an inflammatory disease of the kidneys, nephritis

tonsill- (Latin tonsilla, ae f tonsil) + ītis → tonsillītis, itĭdis f —
an inflammation of the tonsil, tonsillitis

The site of the inflammatory process can be defined more precisely by means of the following prefixes of the Greek origin:

1) endo- (inner, mostly a mucous part of an organ):

endo + metr- (utĕrus, i m) + ītis → endometrītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus, endometritis

2) para- (cellular, connective and other tissues near an organ):

para- + cyst (urinary bladder) + ītis → paracystītis, itĭdis f — a condition
of inflammation affecting the connective and other tissues lying close to
the bladder, paracystitis

3) peri- (tissues enclosing an organ):

peri- + card- (heart) + ītis → pericardītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of
the membrane enveloping the heart, pericarditis.

Names of some inflammatory morbid conditions are formed without suffix -ītis, e. g.:

panaritium, i n — an inflammation in the nail fold, panaris (=panaritium);

pneumonia, ae f — an inflammation of the spongy tissue of the lung, pneumonia

§ 138. Names of morbid conditions of physiological fluids

Due to inflammatory processes some specific fluids may accumulate or be produced in cavities and tissues:

exsudātum, i n — a fluid extravasated into a cavity, exudate;

transsudātum, i n — any fluid that has passed through a membrane or
the skin, transudate.

The abnormal accumulation of fluid in a tissue or cavity space is generally called hydrops, ōpis m — hydrops, dropsy. This noun is used with adjectives and any other noun:

hydrops vesicae felleae — fluid swelling in the gall bladder.

The presence of excessive fluid in the cavity of a definite part of the body is expressed by the prefix hydro- and a final root with the ending of the 1st, 2nd or 3rd declension:

hydrometra, ae f — an accumulation of watery fluid in the cavity of
the uterus, hydrometra;

hydropericardium, i n — excessive accumulation of serous fluid in
the pericardium, hydropericardium;

hydrarthrōsis, is f — a watery effusion into the cavity of a joint, hydrarthrosis.

Pus also refers to the fluids accumulated due to the inflammatory processes. The presence of pus is expressed in one-word terms by the initial root py- (Greek pus) and the final roots together with the grammar ending:

pyopericardium, i n — an accumulation of pus in the pericardium, pyopericardium;

pyuria, ae f — a condition in which pus is present in the urine.

The meaning “lymph” is denoted by the initial roots chyl- and lymph-.

The root chyl- is used if lymph is present in a cavity, in the blood or urine:

chylothōrax, ācis m — a condition in which there is an effusion of lymph into the thoracic cavity, chylothorax;

chyluria, ae f — a condition in which the urine contains lymph, chyluria.

The root lymph- is used if lymph is considered as a part of lymphatic cells, glands and vessels:

lymphocytōsis, is f — an increase in the number of lymphocytes present in the blood, lymphocytosis;

lymphadenopahia, ae f — any morbid condition of the lymph gland, lymphadenopathy;

lymphangiītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of lymphatic vessels, lymphangiitis.

Abnormal presence of blood in a cavity is expressed by the initial root haem- or haemat- which is added to a root and the final suffix -ōsis as well as any grammar ending of the 1st, 2nd or 3rd declension:

haemarthrōsis, is f — an extravasation of blood into a joint, haemarthrosis;

haematomētra, ae f — an accumulation of blood or menstrual fluid in
the cavity of uterus, haematometra;

haemotympănum, i n — the presence of blood in the tympanic cavity, haemotympanum.

An abnormal state of blood circulation is mostly caused by embolaemia — a condition in which emboli are present in the blood. As a result, there occurs
a sudden blocking of a blood vessel, usually an artery, by the emboli — fragments of a blood clot, clumps of bacteria or other foreign bodies introduced into the circulation. Such a condition is named thromboembolism (thromboembolismus, i m or thromboembolia, ae f).

An abnormal cessation of the flow of blood, lymph or other physiological fluid is marked by the final root -stăsis:

galactostăsis, is f — an arrest or stagnation in the secretion of milk, galactostasis;

lymphostăsis, is f — cessation of the flow of lymph, lymphostasis.

§ 139. Table of initial roots

^ Greek roots and their variants

Latin equivalents
in dictionary form

English meaning

English word building elements


1) glandŭla, ae f

2) adenoĭdes, um f

3) nodus lymphatĭcus

1) gland

2) adenoids

3) lymphatic node


aёr-, pneum-,


aёr, is m

air or a gas

aёr-, pneum-,



bilis, is f; fel, fellis n




vesīca biliāris (fellea)

gall bladder


1) chyl-,

2) lymph-

lympha, ae f

chyle or lymph

chyl-, lymph-

col-, -colon

1) intestīnum crassum

2) colon

1) large intestine

2) colon

col-, -colon

col-, -colon


1) saccus, i m

2) vesīca, ae f

3) vesīca urinaria

1) sac

2) bladder

3) urinary bladder



lacrĭma, ae f




saccus lacrimālis

lacrimal sac



1) intestīnum tenue

2) intestīnum

1) small intestine

2) intestine




lac, lactis n





sudor, ōris m




1) aqua, ae f

2) liquor cerebrospinālis

3) exsudātum, i n

4) transsudātum, i n

1) water

2) cerebrospinal fluid

3) exudate

4) transudate


lip-, seb-

1) adeps, ĭpis m

2) sebum, i n

1) fatty tissue of the body

2) the fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands

lip-, seb-


mensis, is m

menses, the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus


pan-, pant-

omnis, e


pan-, pant-


griseus, a, um




pus, puris n



sial-, -sialia

1) salīva, ae f

2) ductus salivarii

1) saliva

2) salivary ducts

sial-, -sialia

ur-, -uria

1) urea, ae f

2) urīna, ae f

1) urea, the chief nitrogenous constituent of urine; 2) urine

ur-, -uria


flavus, a, um



§ 140. Table of final roots

^ Final root elements

English meaning


any state of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice


secretion of the gastric juice


any condition of menses


any condition of the uterus


hemorrhage (bleeding) in any part of the body


profuse discharge of mucus or other fluid substance


secretion of saliva


any condition of the uterine tube


cessation of the flow of any physiological fluid


any condition of the thorax


any condition of the urine

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