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§ 135. Exercises - А. З. Цисык; пер на англ яз. А. З. Цисык. Минск : бгму, 2010. 212 с


§ 135. Exercises

  1. ^ Give the dictionary form of the Latin equivalents corresponding to
    the following Greek roots:

brachy-, dolich-, erythr-, glyc-, leuc-, melan-, micr-, olig-, poly-, thyre-

  1. Write the dictionary form of the Latin equivalents and then give:
    1) Greek equivalents corresponding to every Latin equivalent 2) English meaning of every pair of equivalents:

calor; cellŭla; dens; labium; lingua; lien; magnus; maxilla; medulla ossium; pes; pulsus; sensus

  1. ^ Complete (orally) the dictionary form of each noun. Determine
    the meaning of each initial and final morphological element; write down the full definition of each term as well as its English equivalent:

amnesia; anaesthesiolŏgus; apodia; asthenia; brachycephălus; brachydactylia; dolichocephalia; dysthyreōsis; erythropenia; glossoplegia; glycaemia; hyperaemia; hyperthermia; hypotonia; leucocytōsis; melanoderma; microgenia; micromyelia; odontogenĕsis; oligocytaemia; oligophrenia; polymastia; prognathia; sphygmogramma; splenomegalia; thermotherapia; thrombocytopoёsis; thyreotoxicōsis

  1. ^ Make up the Latin dictionary form of one-word terms with the following meaning:

abnormal narrowness of the mouth; abnormal slowness and weakness
of the process of digestion; abnormal sluggishness of physical movements;
a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes; a condition
of enlargement of the liver; an abnormally long colon of normal diameter;
an increase in the total number of leucocytes; a pathological condition involving many joints; a person with an unusually small size of head; a red blood cell that is larger than normal; a state in which most of the teeth are lacking; a state in which there are too few erythrocytes; dilatation of the stomach; excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body; the origin and development of bone marrow;
the origin and development of morbid condition; extremely rapid breathing

  1. ^ Give the full definition and the Latin dictionary form of the terms:

aglossia; anaemia; brachyoesophagus; cytology; dolichocolon; dystonia; erythema; gnathalgia; haematomyelia; hepatomegalia; hyperesthesia; hyperglycaemia; hypertension; hypomnesia; hypophrenia; hypoplasia; hypothermia; macrocyte; megaloduodenum; megalomania; melanocarcinoma; micromastia; microsphygmy; monocytopoesis; myelocytaemia; oligodactylia; podagra; podalgia; polyavitaminosis; splenohepatomegaly

§ 136. Vocabulary to lesson 21

Latin-English vocabulary

amnesia, ae f — loss of memory of varying degree, amnesia

anaesthesiolŏgus, i m — a specialist in the administration of anaesthetics, anaesthesiologist

apodia, ae f — congenital absence of feet, apodia

asthenia, ae f — loss of vital forces, asthenia

brachycephălus, i m — an individual with disproportionately short head, brachycephalic

brachydactylia, ae f — a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes, brachydactylia

dolichocephalia, ae f — the state of having a relatively long skull, dolichocephalia

dysthyreōsis, ae f — imperfect functioning of the thyroid gland, dysthyreosis

erythropenia, ae f — a state in which there are too few erythrocytes, erythropenia

glossoplegia, ae f — paralysis of the tongue, glossoplegia

glycaemia, ae f — a condition in which the circulating blood contains a quantity of sugar above normal amounts, glycaemia

hyperaemia, ae f — an excess of blood in any part of the body, hyperaemia

hyperthermia, ae f — very high body temperature, hyperthermia

hypotonia, ae f — lessened tension in any body structure, hypotonia

leucocytōsis, is f — an increase in the total number of leucocytes in the blood, leucocytosis

melanoderma, ătis n — a condition in which there is an unusually large accumulation of melanin in the skin, melanoderma

microgenia, ae f — a condition in which the chin is of unusually small size, microgenia

micromyelia, ae f — general reduction in size of the spinal cord, micromyelia

odontogenĕsis, is f — the origin and formative development of teeth, odontogenesis

oligocytaemia, ae f — a condition in the blood in which there is cell deficiency, oligocytaemia

oligophrenia, ae f — congenital lack of the mentality, oligophrenia

polymastia, ae f — a state in which in human beings there are more than two distinct mammary glands, polymastia

prognathia, ae f — a condition in which there is abnormal projection of one or both jaws, prognatism

sphygmoramma, ătis n — a record of the arterial pulse waves, sphygmogram

splenomegalia, ae f — enlargement of the spleen, splenomegalia

thermotherapia, ae f — the use of heat in the treatment of disease, thermotherapia

thrombocytopoёsis, is f — the formation of blood platelets, thrombocytopoiesis

thyreotoxicōsis, is f — any toxic condition attributable to hyperactivity of
the thyroid gland, thyrotoxicosis


^ English-Latin vocabulary

abnormal slowness and weakness of the process of digestion, hypopepsia — hypopepsia, ae f

abnormally rapid breathing, tachypnea — tachypnoё, ёs f

a condition of enlargement of the liver, hepatomegalia — hepatomegalia, ae f

a condition in which there are abnormally short fingers or toes, brachydactylia — brachydactylia, ae f

aglossia, a congenital condition of being devoid of a tongue — aglossia, ae f

an abnormally long colon of normal diameter, dolichocolon — dolichocōlon, i n

anaemia, a condition of the blood in which there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the red cells resulting in a reduction in the total amount of blood — anaemia, ae f

an increase in the total number of leucocytes, leucocytosis — leucocytōsis, is f

a pathological condition involving many joints, polyarthropathy — polyarthropathia, ae f

a person with an unusually small size of head, microcephalus — microcephălus, i m

a red blood cell that is larger than normal, macrocyte — macrocўtus, i m

a state in which most of the teeth are lacking, oligodentia — oligodentia, ae f

a state in which there are too few erythrocytes, erythropenia — erythropenia, ae f

brachyoesophagus, a congenitally short oesophagus — brachyoesophăgus, i m

dilatation of the stomach, gastrectasia — gastrectasia, ae f

dolichocolon, an abnormally long colon of normal diameter — dolichocōlon, i n

cytology, the science of the form and functions of cells — cytologia, ae f

dystonia, a state of disordered tonicity — dystonia, ae f

erythema, redness of the skin due to hyperaemia — erythēma, ătis n

excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body, hyperaesthesia — hyperaesthesia, ae f

extremely rapid breathing, tachypnea — tachypnoё, ёs f

gnathalgia, pain in one or both jaws — gnathalgia, ae f

haematomyelia, bleeding within the substance of the spinal cord — haematomyelia, ae f

hepatomegalia, a condition of enlargement of the liver — hepatomegalia, ae f

hyperaesthesia, excessive sensitiveness of any organ or part of the body — hyperaesthesia, ae f

hyperglycaemia, an excessive amount of sugar in the blood — hyperglycaemia, ae f

hypertension, high arterial blood pressure — hypertensio, ōnis f

hypomnesia, a weak or defective state of the memory — hypomnesia, ae f

hypophrenia, feebleness of mind — hypophrenia, ae f

hypoplasia, underdevelopment of a tissue or part — hypoplasia, ae f

hypothermia, deficiency of body heat — hypothermia, ae f

macrocyte, a red blood cell that is larger than normal — macrocўtus, i m

megaloduodenum, duodenum of abnormally large size — megaloduodēnum, i n

megalomania, a mental condition in which a person has grandiose delusions about himself and his own intellect, power, importance and so on — megalomania, ae f

melanocarcinoma, a darkly pigmented malignant epithelial tumor — melanocarcinōma, ătis n

micromastia, abnormal smallness of the mammary glands — micromastia, ae f

microsphygmy, diminished strength of pulse — microsphygmia, ae f

monocytopoiesis, the production of monocytes in the bone marrow — monocytopoёsis, is f

myelocytaemia, the presence of myelocytes in the blood — myelocytaemia, ae f

oligodactylia, a congenital deficiency of fingers or toes — oligodactylia, ae f

podagra, gout, a disease of the purine metabolism characterized by attacks of arthritis with an assotiated raised serum uric acid — podăgra, ae f

podalgia, sensation of pain in the foot — podalgia, ae f

polyavitaminosis, a morbid condition caused by deficiency of several
vitamins — polyavitaminōsis, is f

splenohepatomegaly, enlargement of the spleen — splenohepatomegalia ae f

the origin and development of the bone marrow, myelogenesis — myelogenĕsis, is f

the origin and development of a morbid condition, pathogenesis — pathogenĕsis, is f


Lesson 22

^ NAMES OF INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES WHICH OCCUR
IN ORGANS AND TISSUES. NAMES OF ABNORMALITIES
IN THE STATES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

§ 137. Names of inflammatory conditions

The state of inflammation in any organ or tissue, as a rule, is usually expressed by means of the final suffixed element -ītis which is transformed into -itĭdis in the Genitive form. The suffix -ītis is added to the initial root of
the noun which defines the place of a morbid state. All the terms with the suffix -ītis are nouns of the 3rd declension:

arthr- (joint) + ītis → arthrītis, itĭdis f — inflammation of a joint, arthritis

hepat- (liver) + ītis → hepatītis, itĭdis f — inflammation of the liver, hepatitis

The suffix -ītis may be added both to the Greek and Latin roots:

nephr- (Greek nephros kidney) + ītis → nephrītis, itĭdis f —
an inflammatory disease of the kidneys, nephritis

tonsill- (Latin tonsilla, ae f tonsil) + ītis → tonsillītis, itĭdis f —
an inflammation of the tonsil, tonsillitis

The site of the inflammatory process can be defined more precisely by means of the following prefixes of the Greek origin:

1) endo- (inner, mostly a mucous part of an organ):

endo + metr- (utĕrus, i m) + ītis → endometrītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus, endometritis

2) para- (cellular, connective and other tissues near an organ):

para- + cyst (urinary bladder) + ītis → paracystītis, itĭdis f — a condition
of inflammation affecting the connective and other tissues lying close to
the bladder, paracystitis

3) peri- (tissues enclosing an organ):

peri- + card- (heart) + ītis → pericardītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of
the membrane enveloping the heart, pericarditis.

Names of some inflammatory morbid conditions are formed without suffix -ītis, e. g.:

panaritium, i n — an inflammation in the nail fold, panaris (=panaritium);

pneumonia, ae f — an inflammation of the spongy tissue of the lung, pneumonia

§ 138. Names of morbid conditions of physiological fluids

Due to inflammatory processes some specific fluids may accumulate or be produced in cavities and tissues:

exsudātum, i n — a fluid extravasated into a cavity, exudate;

transsudātum, i n — any fluid that has passed through a membrane or
the skin, transudate.

The abnormal accumulation of fluid in a tissue or cavity space is generally called hydrops, ōpis m — hydrops, dropsy. This noun is used with adjectives and any other noun:

hydrops vesicae felleae — fluid swelling in the gall bladder.

The presence of excessive fluid in the cavity of a definite part of the body is expressed by the prefix hydro- and a final root with the ending of the 1st, 2nd or 3rd declension:

hydrometra, ae f — an accumulation of watery fluid in the cavity of
the uterus, hydrometra;

hydropericardium, i n — excessive accumulation of serous fluid in
the pericardium, hydropericardium;

hydrarthrōsis, is f — a watery effusion into the cavity of a joint, hydrarthrosis.

Pus also refers to the fluids accumulated due to the inflammatory processes. The presence of pus is expressed in one-word terms by the initial root py- (Greek pus) and the final roots together with the grammar ending:

pyopericardium, i n — an accumulation of pus in the pericardium, pyopericardium;

pyuria, ae f — a condition in which pus is present in the urine.

The meaning “lymph” is denoted by the initial roots chyl- and lymph-.

The root chyl- is used if lymph is present in a cavity, in the blood or urine:

chylothōrax, ācis m — a condition in which there is an effusion of lymph into the thoracic cavity, chylothorax;

chyluria, ae f — a condition in which the urine contains lymph, chyluria.

The root lymph- is used if lymph is considered as a part of lymphatic cells, glands and vessels:

lymphocytōsis, is f — an increase in the number of lymphocytes present in the blood, lymphocytosis;

lymphadenopahia, ae f — any morbid condition of the lymph gland, lymphadenopathy;

lymphangiītis, itĭdis f — an inflammation of lymphatic vessels, lymphangiitis.

Abnormal presence of blood in a cavity is expressed by the initial root haem- or haemat- which is added to a root and the final suffix -ōsis as well as any grammar ending of the 1st, 2nd or 3rd declension:

haemarthrōsis, is f — an extravasation of blood into a joint, haemarthrosis;

haematomētra, ae f — an accumulation of blood or menstrual fluid in
the cavity of uterus, haematometra;

haemotympănum, i n — the presence of blood in the tympanic cavity, haemotympanum.

An abnormal state of blood circulation is mostly caused by embolaemia — a condition in which emboli are present in the blood. As a result, there occurs
a sudden blocking of a blood vessel, usually an artery, by the emboli — fragments of a blood clot, clumps of bacteria or other foreign bodies introduced into the circulation. Such a condition is named thromboembolism (thromboembolismus, i m or thromboembolia, ae f).

An abnormal cessation of the flow of blood, lymph or other physiological fluid is marked by the final root -stăsis:

galactostăsis, is f — an arrest or stagnation in the secretion of milk, galactostasis;

lymphostăsis, is f — cessation of the flow of lymph, lymphostasis.

§ 139. Table of initial roots

^ Greek roots and their variants

Latin equivalents
in dictionary form

English meaning

English word building elements

aden-

1) glandŭla, ae f

2) adenoĭdes, um f

3) nodus lymphatĭcus

1) gland

2) adenoids

3) lymphatic node

aden-

aёr-, pneum-,

pneumat-

aёr, is m

air or a gas

aёr-, pneum-,

pneumat-

chole-

bilis, is f; fel, fellis n

bile

chole-

cholecyst-

vesīca biliāris (fellea)

gall bladder

cholecyst-

1) chyl-,

2) lymph-

lympha, ae f

chyle or lymph

chyl-, lymph-

col-, -colon

1) intestīnum crassum

2) colon

1) large intestine

2) colon

col-, -colon

col-, -colon

cyst-

1) saccus, i m

2) vesīca, ae f

3) vesīca urinaria

1) sac

2) bladder

3) urinary bladder

cyst-

dacry-

lacrĭma, ae f

tear

dacry-

dacryocyst-

saccus lacrimālis

lacrimal sac

dacryocyst-

enter-

1) intestīnum tenue

2) intestīnum

1) small intestine

2) intestine

enter-

galact-,

-galactia

lac, lactis n

milk

galact-,

-galactia

hidr-

sudor, ōris m

sweat

hidr-

hydr-

1) aqua, ae f

2) liquor cerebrospinālis

3) exsudātum, i n

4) transsudātum, i n

1) water

2) cerebrospinal fluid

3) exudate

4) transudate

hydr-

lip-, seb-

1) adeps, ĭpis m

2) sebum, i n

1) fatty tissue of the body

2) the fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands

lip-, seb-

men-

mensis, is m

menses, the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus

men-

pan-, pant-

omnis, e

all

pan-, pant-

poli-

griseus, a, um

grey

poli-

py-

pus, puris n

pus

py-

sial-, -sialia

1) salīva, ae f

2) ductus salivarii

1) saliva

2) salivary ducts

sial-, -sialia

ur-, -uria

1) urea, ae f

2) urīna, ae f

1) urea, the chief nitrogenous constituent of urine; 2) urine

ur-, -uria

xanth-

flavus, a, um

yellow

xanth-

§ 140. Table of final roots

^ Final root elements

English meaning

-chlorhydria

any state of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice

-chylia

secretion of the gastric juice

-menorrhoea

any condition of menses

-metra

any condition of the uterus

-rrhagia

hemorrhage (bleeding) in any part of the body

-rrhoea

profuse discharge of mucus or other fluid substance

-salivatio

secretion of saliva

-salpinx

any condition of the uterine tube

-stăsis

cessation of the flow of any physiological fluid

-thōrax

any condition of the thorax

-uria

any condition of the urine


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